So veröffentlichen Sie Podcasts mit OS X in iTunes

So veröffentlichen Sie Podcasts mit OS X in iTunes

⌛ Reading Time: 5 minutes

In diesem Artikel zeigen wir Ihnen, wie Sie Ihre Podcasts manuell codieren, senden und hosten, damit sie nicht nur in iTunes angezeigt werden, sondern auch in iTunes angezeigt werden, damit Ihre zukünftigen Abonnenten sie herunterladen können.

Beginnen

Sobald Sie Ihren Audio- (oder Video-) Podcast aufgenommen haben, müssen Sie ihn als M4A, MP3, MOV oder M4V speichern und so klein wie möglich machen, ohne die Qualität zu stark zu beeinträchtigen.

Der nächste Schritt besteht darin, die Datei an einem öffentlichen Ort zu hosten, z. B. über eine URL zugänglich. Auf diese Weise können Sie die URL an einen beliebigen Aggregationsdienst einschließlich iTunes senden. Speziell für iTunes muss die Datei online sein und eine URL enthalten, über die die Apple-Server sie finden und herunterladen oder streamen können.

Hinweis: Überprüfen Sie, ob der Server, auf dem Sie Ihre Episoden hosten möchten, Anforderungen für den Bytebereich unterstützt, da dies den Benutzern das Streamen Ihrer Episoden erleichtert.

Als Nächstes müssen Sie ein Album-Titelbild oder -Symbol erstellen, damit der Store funktioniert und es auch das Symbol für den Podcast ist, wenn er auf einem Computer auf iTunes heruntergeladen wird. Es kann entweder PNG oder JPG sein und muss eine Mindestgröße von 1400 x 1400 Pixel und eine Höchstgröße von 2048 x 2048 haben. Erstellen Sie es in Photoshop oder GIMP und speichern Sie die Datei: zum Beispiel als „wicked-cover-image.jpg ”.

RSS-Feeding

Hier ist das Wichtige. Sie erstellen keinen Feed für einen einzelnen Podcast. Sie erstellen eine XML-Datei für Ihre “Show” oder Ihren Kanal. Diese Datei wird von iTunes jedes Mal gelesen, wenn Sie eine neue Episode zu Ihrer Sendung senden. Sie enthält alle Details, die Benutzer im iTunes Store sehen – Titel, Untertitel, Shownotizen usw.

Ein Eintrag im iTunes Store.

Eine XML-Beispieldatei gliedert sich folgendermaßen: Sie deklarieren zuerst, dass es sich um ein XML-Dokument handelt, und dann die iTunes-Tags in einer Namespace-Deklaration wie folgt:

Wenn Sie dies vergessen, werden die iTunes-spezifischen XML-Tags ignoriert. Fügen Sie dann der Podcast-Website ein öffnendes -Tag, ein -Tag, einen <link> sowie ein <language> – und ein <copyright> -Tag hinzu:</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><channel<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><title<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>MY PODCAST TITLE<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></b<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></title<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><link<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>http://www.mypodcastexample.com/podcasts/mypodcast/index.html<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></link<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><language<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>en-us<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></language<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><copyright<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span><span style="color: #ddbb00;">&#xA9;</span> 2015 Phil South<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></copyright<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <div id="Routech.ro_in_content_ad3" class="in-content-ad ad-slot mb-2"> </div> <p><strong>Hinweis:</strong> Dies ist eine XML-Datei und keine HTML-Datei, daher können Sie den HTML-Code “& copy;” nicht verwenden. Für das Copyright-Symbol müssen Sie den Unicode “& # xA9;” verwenden. stattdessen.</p> <p>Nach diesen Öffnern beginnen wir mit den <itunes:> -Tags. Diese füllen die allgemeinen Felder im Eintrag Ihres Podcasts bei iTunes, den Untertitel, den Autor, eine Zusammenfassung und eine Beschreibung aus.</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:subtitle<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>insert a witty subtitle here<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:subtitle<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:author<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>Phil South<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:author<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:summary<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>Here you can put a description of your podcast, and if you don't have this tag for whatever reason the contents of the description tag will be used. Note that the text is not enclosed in quotes.<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:summary<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><description<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>description text goes here. Usually this is the same as the summary text.<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></description<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Zusammenfassungen werden angezeigt, wenn Sie in iTunes auf das Info-Symbol klicken.</p> <p><picture><source data- type="image/webp"><img width="362" height="329" class="lazyload aligncenter wp-image-114912 size-full" title="Zusammenfassungen werden angezeigt, wenn Sie auf die Schaltfläche "Eingekreistes i" klicken." src="https://www.routech.ro/wp-content/uploads/Cum-sa-publicati-podcast-uri-pe-iTunes-cu-OS-X.png" loading="lazy" alt="Zusammenfassungen werden angezeigt, wenn Sie auf die Schaltfläche "Eingekreistes i" klicken." ></source></picture></p> <p><noscript><img width="362" height="329" class="aligncenter wp-image-114912 size-full" title="Zusammenfassungen werden angezeigt, wenn Sie auf die Schaltfläche "Eingekreistes i" klicken." alt="Zusammenfassungen werden angezeigt, wenn Sie auf die Schaltfläche "Eingekreistes i" klicken." ></noscript></p> <p>Als nächstes gibt es ein <owner> -Tag. Dies ist nicht öffentlich im Eintrag in iTunes enthalten, sondern wird als Administratorkontakt für den Feed verwendet:</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:owner<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:name<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>Phil South<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:name<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:email<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>phil@example.com<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:email<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:owner<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <div id="Routech.ro_in_content_ad4" class="in-content-ad ad-slot mb-2"> </div> <p>Das nächste Bild-Tag enthält den Link zum Titelbild der gesamten Show auf Ihrem Server:</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:image</span> <span style="color: #000066;">href</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"http://www.mypodcastexample.com/podcasts/mypodcast/wicked-cover-image.jpg"</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Geben Sie abschließend eine Erklärung zu der beabsichtigten Kategorie oder zu mehreren Kategorien ab, in denen iTunes Ihren Eintrag in seiner Datenbank speichern soll:</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:category</span> <span style="color: #000066;">text</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"Technology"</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:category</span> <span style="color: #000066;">text</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"Gadgets"</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:category<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:category</span> <span style="color: #000066;">text</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"TV & Film"</span><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Nehmen Sie sich etwas Zeit, um die verschiedenen Kategorien und Unterkategorien in iTunes durchzugehen und sicherzustellen, dass Sie in allen zutreffenden Kategorien aufgeführt sind.</p> <h2>Jetzt ist Show Time</h2> <p>Nachdem Sie Ihren gesamten Podcast-Kanal angegeben haben, können Sie jetzt Einträge für einzelne Episoden vornehmen. Jede Episode ist vom Item-Tag eingeschlossen. Anschließend können Sie die Tags für Titel, Autor, Untertitel, Zusammenfassung und Bild hinzufügen, wie Sie es für die gesamte Show getan haben. Natürlich können Sie ein Bild für diese bestimmte Episode hinzufügen:</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><item<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><title<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>Episode 1 - The Beginning<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></title<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:author<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>Phil South<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:author<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:subtitle<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>another short witty subtitle<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:subtitle<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:summary<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>Here is where you put the description of the individual episode<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:summary<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:image</span> <span style="color: #000066;">href</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"http://www.mypodcastexample.com/podcasts/mypodcast/wicked-episode01-cover-image.jpg"</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Der einzige Unterschied zum Episodeneintrag besteht darin, dass Sie einen Link zur eigentlichen Podcast-Datei angeben müssen. Dies geschieht hier mit dem Enclosure-Tag:</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><enclosure</span> <span style="color: #000066;">url</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"http://www.mypodcastexample.com/podcasts/mypodcast/episode001.m4a"</span> <span style="color: #000066;">length</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"30212381"</span> <span style="color: #000066;">type</span>=<span style="color: #ff0000;">"audio/x-m4a"</span> <span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">/></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Die Länge “30212381” ist die Größe in Bytes, die aus der Datei “Right Mouse Button -> Get Info” (oder? -I) abgerufen werden kann.</p> <p>Als nächstes kommt ein Guid-Tag, eine Art Permalink. Stellen Sie sicher, dass Sie auf eine permanente Archivkopie des Podcasts zeigen, falls die Originaldatei aus irgendeinem Grund jemals gelöscht oder verschoben wird.</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><guid<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>http://www.mypodcastexample.com/podcasts/mypodcast/archive/episode001.m4a<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></guid<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Das Veröffentlichungsdatum ist das nächste, und dies kann ein Datum in der Vergangenheit, Gegenwart oder Zukunft sein.</p> <p><strong>Hinweis:</strong> Stellen Sie beim Codieren des <pubDate> -Tags sicher, dass es dem entspricht <a rel="nofollow noopener noreferrer" target="_blank" href="http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2822.html" title="RFC 2822 - Internet Message Format">RFC2822 Standard</a> oder so:</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><pubDate<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>Wed, 15 Mar 2015 07:30:00 GMT<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></pubDate<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Dann müssen Sie die Dauer des Podcasts hinzufügen. Sie können dies in Ihrer Soundbearbeitungssoftware oder mithilfe von Get Info mit der rechten Maustaste -> Get Info (oder? -I) anzeigen.</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"><itunes:duration<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span>67:15<span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></itunes:duration<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <p>Schließen Sie zum Schluss die gesamte Datei, indem Sie ein schließendes <item> -, <channel> – und <rss> -Tag hinzufügen.</p> <div class="holsh-div nolinks"> <div class="xml" style="font-family:monospace;"> <pre style=""><span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></item<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></channel<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span> <span style="color: #009900;"><span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;"></rss<span style="color: #000000; font-weight: bold;">></span></span></span></pre> </div> </div> <h2>Und schließlich senden</h2> <p>Nachdem Sie den Podcast erstellt, ein Titelbild erstellt, die XML-Datei geschrieben und alle diese Dateien auf Ihre Website hochgeladen haben, müssen Sie die URL oder Ihre XML-Datei an Apple senden. Dies geschieht hier: <a rel="nofollow noopener noreferrer" target="_blank" href="https://buy.itunes.apple.com/WebObjects/MZFinance.woa/wa/publishPodcast" title="Submit your RSS podcast feed URL to Apple via iTunes.">Senden Sie Ihre RSS-Podcast-Feed-URL über iTunes an Apple</a>.</p> <div id="Routech.ro_in_content_ad2" class="in-content-ad ad-slot mb-2"> </div> <p><picture><source data- type="image/webp"><img width="663" height="502" class="lazyload aligncenter wp-image-114916 size-full" title="Senden Sie Ihre URL oder Ihre XML-Datei an Apple." src="https://www.routech.ro/wp-content/uploads/1602025329_877_Cum-sa-publicati-podcast-uri-pe-iTunes-cu-OS-X.jpg" loading="lazy" alt="Senden Sie Ihre URL oder Ihre XML-Datei an Apple." ></source></picture></p> <p><noscript><img width="663" height="502" class="aligncenter wp-image-114916 size-full" title="Senden Sie Ihre URL oder Ihre XML-Datei an Apple." alt="Senden Sie Ihre URL oder Ihre XML-Datei an Apple." ></noscript></p> <p>Vollständige technische Daten der XML-Befehle und alles, was Sie sonst noch wissen müssen, sind <a rel="nofollow noopener noreferrer" target="_blank" href="http://www.apple.com/itunes/podcasts/specs.html" title="How to Make a Podcast by Apple.">erhältlich bei Apple</a>.</p> <p>Es gibt eine andere Möglichkeit, den XML-Feed zu erstellen, und zwar mit kostenpflichtiger Software. Aber welche ist die beste? Manuell ist immer besser, wenn Sie es ertragen können, den gesamten Code einzugeben (oder besser noch eine Vorlage zu erstellen und die Lücken auszufüllen), aber manchmal kann eine helfende Hand bei diesen nervigen Tippfehlern helfen.</p> </p></div> <!-- Rate my Post Plugin --><div class="rmp-widgets-container rmp-wp-plugin rmp-main-container js-rmp-widgets-container js-rmp-widgets-container--15353" data-post-id="15353"> <!-- Rating widget --> <div class="rmp-rating-widget js-rmp-rating-widget"> <p class="rmp-heading rmp-heading--title"> How useful was this post? </p> <p class="rmp-heading rmp-heading--subtitle"> Click on a star to rate it! </p> <div class="rmp-rating-widget__icons"> <ul class="rmp-rating-widget__icons-list js-rmp-rating-icons-list"> <li class="rmp-rating-widget__icons-list__icon js-rmp-rating-item" data-descriptive-rating="Not at all useful" data-value="1"> <i class="js-rmp-rating-icon rmp-icon rmp-icon--ratings rmp-icon--thumbs-up "></i> </li> <li class="rmp-rating-widget__icons-list__icon js-rmp-rating-item" data-descriptive-rating="Somewhat useful" data-value="2"> <i class="js-rmp-rating-icon rmp-icon rmp-icon--ratings rmp-icon--thumbs-up "></i> </li> <li class="rmp-rating-widget__icons-list__icon js-rmp-rating-item" data-descriptive-rating="Useful" data-value="3"> <i class="js-rmp-rating-icon rmp-icon rmp-icon--ratings rmp-icon--thumbs-up "></i> </li> <li class="rmp-rating-widget__icons-list__icon js-rmp-rating-item" data-descriptive-rating="Fairly useful" data-value="4"> <i class="js-rmp-rating-icon rmp-icon rmp-icon--ratings rmp-icon--thumbs-up "></i> </li> <li class="rmp-rating-widget__icons-list__icon js-rmp-rating-item" data-descriptive-rating="Very useful" data-value="5"> <i class="js-rmp-rating-icon rmp-icon rmp-icon--ratings rmp-icon--thumbs-up "></i> </li> </ul> </div> <p class="rmp-rating-widget__hover-text js-rmp-hover-text"></p> <button class="rmp-rating-widget__submit-btn rmp-btn js-submit-rating-btn"> Submit Rating </button> <p class="rmp-rating-widget__results js-rmp-results rmp-rating-widget__results--hidden"> Average rating <span class="rmp-rating-widget__results__rating js-rmp-avg-rating">0</span> / 5. 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